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GAP Analysis Predicted Distribution Map

Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)

Species Code: ERAL

Click to enlarge Range map

= Core Habitat
= Marginal Habitat

Breeding Range Map
The green area shows the predicted habitats for breeding only. The habitats were identified using 1991 satellite imagery, Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA), other datasets and experts throughout the state, as part of the Washington Gap Analysis Project. Habitats used during non-breeding months and migratory rest-stops were not mapped.

Metadata (Data about data or how the map was made)

Click to enlarge distribution map

Map with Breeding Bird Atlas records>

Other maps & Information:
  • Breeding Bird Atlas
  • NatureMapping observations
    during breeding season
  • NatureMapping observations
    throughout the year

Washington has three ecologically distinct breeding subspecies: E.a.strigata (Streaked Horned Lark): Very local and rare breeder in remnant grasslands in prairies and beaches of western Washington. E.a.alpine (Pallid Horned Lark): Locally common breeder in dry alpine habitats and very high elevations, and usually associated with rain shadows of major volcanoes, at high elevations in the northeastern Cascades and northeast Olympics. E.a. merrilli (Dusky Horned Lark): Abundant and widespread breeder throughout eastern Washington in steppe and agricutural habitats (especially wheat fields) at low elevations below the Ponderosa Pine zone.

E.a.strigata: Good habitats in core zone were grasslands, riparian habitats along the Columbia river (which include sand bars, wet grassy meadows, and adjacent south-facing grassy slopes on steep river banks), and ocean dunes with grass, but limited to sites with evidence of recent breeding. E.a.alpine: Good habitats in core zones were non-forested areas in the Mountain Hemlock, Subalpine Fir, and Alpine/Parkland zones of the Olympics and Cascades. E.a.merrilli: Core zones were steppe zones, the Oak zone, and the Ponderosa Pine zone locally in the notheast and within the Columbia Basin. Steppe and Oak zones were all good habitats except mid-to-high-density development, and in the Ponderosa Pine zone were agriculture, meadows and clearings.

E.a.strigata historically occurred in prairies throughout the Puget Trough. The widespread E.a.merrilli of eastern Washington utilizes disturbed grass patches and may benefit from some introduced plant species. E.a.alpine prefers dry, lichen-encrusted alpine habitats at high elevations in volcanic rain shadows.

Translated from the Washington Gap Analysis Bird Volume by Uchenna Bright
Text edited by Gussie Litwer
Webpage designed by Dave Lester