Home | About Us | How to Participate | Biodiversity Modules | Projects | Maps | News | Resources

GAP Analysis Predicted Distribution Map

Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)

Species Code: EMTR

Click to enlarge Range map

= Core Habitat
= Marginal Habitat

Breeding Range Map
The green area shows the predicted habitats for breeding only. The habitats were identified using 1991 satellite imagery, Breeding Bird Atlas (BBA), other datasets and experts throughout the state, as part of the Washington Gap Analysis Project. Habitats used during non-breeding months and migratory rest-stops were not mapped.

Metadata (Data about data or how the map was made)

Click to enlarge distribution map

Other maps & Information:
  • Breeding Bird Atlas
  • NatureMapping observations
    during breeding season
  • NatureMapping observations
    throughout the year

This species is a common breeder at lower elevations in wetlands, shrubby areas, and clearcuts. They are a local and rare breeder below the Ponderosa Pine zone in the Columbia Basin and above the Interior Western Hemlock zone (east side) and the Western Hemlock zone (west side). They are local and uncommon on the western Olympic Peninsula and south to the Columbia River.

West side: All forested zones below the Silver Fir zone, excluding the Sitka Spruce zone, were core areas of use, while the Sitka Spruce zone was peripheral. East side: Forested zones below the Subalpine Fir zone were core areas of use, while steppe zones were peripheral. Good habitats in most forested zones were water/wetlands (including estuarine grassland, but not estuarine mud flats), forest openings (including clearcuts), agriculture, low-density development, and forests, with the following exceptions: in the Sitka Spruce and Western Hemlock zones, mid- to late-seral forests were adequate, rather than good; and in the Oak and Ponderosa Pine zones, dryland agriculture and openings in forest were excluded. In the steppe zones, low-density development, forest patches, and water/wetlands were good.

Washington breeders are representative of the western subspecies E. t. brewsteri. Willow Flycatchers may occupy very small wetlands or shrubby areas. Thus all forested habitats in suitable zones are included in the map, under the assumption that they will usually include microhabitats with Willow Flycatchers. This species is rare along the coast at Ocean Shores and Long Beach, and uncommon on the western Olympic Peninsula. In the central Columbia Basin, few breeders are recorded, presumably due to very hot, dry conditions. Where records are noted in this area, there may be late migrants or summering nonbreeders. Farther east in the Palouse and near Spokane, breeders are found again as temperatures decline and rainfall increases. Long-term observations may indicate that populations in Spokane County are declining. However Breeding Bird Survey data for Washington show a significant population increase of 8.4% per year from 1966 to 1991.

Translated from the Washington Gap Analysis Bird Volume by Uchenna Bright
Text edited by Gussie Litwer
Webpage designed by Dave Lester