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GAP Analysis Predicted Distribution Map

White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

Species Code: ODVI

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Breeding Range Map
The green area shows the predicted habitats for breeding only.
© NatureMapping Program

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Predicted breeding range

= Core Habitat
= Marginal Habitat


white-tailed_deer photo

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Breeding Range Map
The green area shows the predicted habitats for breeding only. The habitats were identified using 1991 satellite imagery, other datasets and experts throughout the state, as part of the Washington Gap Analysis Project.

NatureMapping observations map   Map with GAP records
Observations | Historic GAP points


White-tailed Deer are found primarily east of the Cascade crest where they are generally less numerous than Mule Deer but are expanding their range. The exception is northeastern Washington where they are more common than Mule Deer in many locations, particularly at lower and mid-elevations. White-tailed Deer habitat includes areas along streams and rivers, mixed woodlands, farms, forests with multiple successional stages, and burned shrub fields. Generally open areas are used only when thick shrubs or forest are nearby.

There are small numbers of a sub-species, Columbian White-tailed Deer (O.v. leucurus), found west of the Cascades in southwestern Washington in Wahkiakum County. Their range is limited to a few islands and the banks of the Columbia River.

Core zones for White-tailed Deer include the Palouse steppe, Ponderosa Pine, Interior Douglas-fir, Oak, Grand Fir, Interior Western Hemlock and Redcedar in the northeast, and Western Hemlock in Wahkiakum County. Good habitats in forested zones include all but mid and high-density development, bare ground, and closed conifer forest. In the steppe zones, dryland row crops, grassland, and shrub savanna are not adequate habitat.

Translated from the Washington Gap Analysis Mammal Volume by Dave Lester
Design by Tim Knight; Photo: Nature Pics